In this topic,Student should be able to :

a) Explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant by a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium.

b) State Le Chatelier’s Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively the effects of changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium.

c) Deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the presence of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction.

d) Deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations; Kc, and partial pressures; Kp

e) Calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data

f) Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data.

g) Describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process.

h) Understand and use the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases.

i)Explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak acids and bases and the pH values of their aqueous solutions in terms of the extent of dissociation.

j) Explain the terms pH; Ka; pKa; Kw and use them in calculations.

k) Calculate H+(aq) and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases.

l) Explain how buffer solutions control pH.

m) Calculate the pH of buffer solutions from the given appropriate data.

n) Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product, Ksp.

o) Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa.

p) Show understanding of the common ion effect.