In this topic,Student should be able to :
Describe the chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on:/p>
b) The mechanism of free radical substitution reaction of methane with particular reference to the initiation, propagation and termination. Discuss the chemistry of Alkenes with emphasis on:
a) Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions: i) Dehydration of alcoholsii) Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl halide.
b) Reaction of Alkenes such as:
i) Catalytic hydrogenation. ii) Halogenation (Br2 addition to be used as a test of an alkene). iii) Hydration of alkenes. iv) Reaction with HBr with special reference to Markownikoff’s rule. v) Oxidation of alkenes using cold alkaline or acidic KMnO4 (Bayer’s reagent) and using hot concentrated acidic or alkaline KMnO4 for cleavage of double bond in 2-butene. vi) Polymerization of ethene. Discuss chemistry of Benzene with examples
a) Structure of benzene showing the delocalized -orbital which causes stability of benzene.
b) b) Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene including mechanism of: i) Nitration ii) Halogenation (chlorination and bromination) iii) Friedel Craft’s reaction (Alkylation and acylation)
c) Hydrogenation of benzene ring to form cyclohexane ring.
d) Side chain oxidation of methyl benzene (toluene) and ethyl benzene.
e) Directive influence of substituents on the benzene ring by 2,4 directing and 3,5 directing groups (orientation in Electrophilic Substitution reactions of Benzene).