In this topic,Student should be able to :
a) Identify and describe the proton, neutron and electron in terms of their relative charges and relative masses.
b) Discuss the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields.
c) Calculate the distribution of mass and charges within an atom from the given data.
d) Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions for a given proton and nucleon numbers/charge.
e) i) Describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number. ii) Distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present.
f) Describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals.
g) Describe the shapes of s, p and d-orbitals.
h) State the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given, the proton number/charge for period 1, 2, 3 and 4 (hydrogen to Krypton).
i) Explain: i) Ionization energy. ii) The factors influencing the ionization energies of elements.iii) The trends in ionization energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic Table. j) Explain and use the term Electron Affinity.