In this topic,Student should be able to :

a) Understand concept of energy changes during chemical reactions with examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

b) Explain and use the terms: i) Enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to: formation; combustion; solution; neutralization and atomization. ii) Bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking). iii) Lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice).

c) Find heat of reactions/neutralization from experimental results using mathematical relationship i.e. ∆H=mc∆T

d) Explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of lattice energy

e) Apply Hess’s Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to: i) Determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy change of combustion. ii) Born-Haber cycle of NaCl (including ionization energy and electron affinity).