The Chapter Contain Following Key Topics:
- Gas exchange and Transportation
- Excretion and Osmoregulation
- Nervous System
- Support and Movement
- Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands)
Students will be learn after reading this chapter :
a) Digestive System:
Anatomy of digestive system and specify the digestion in: - Oral cavity (role of saliva and enzymes) - Stomach (enzymes) - Small intestine - Large intestine
b) Gas exchange and Transportation: Anatomy of respiratory system (nostrils, trachea, lungs) Explain the term breathing Lymph, structure of heart, carriage of oxygen and carbon dioxide c) Excretion and Osmoregulation: Describe the structure of kidney and its functions with respect to homeostasis What are Kidney problems and cures? - Kidney stones, lithotripsy, kidney transplant, dialysis, renal failure What do you understand by the term Homeostasis?
d) Nervous System: What is Nervous system and its types? Explain CNS (Central Nervous System) including forebrain, mid brain, hind brain and spinal cord Explain PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) and its types (Autonomic and Sympathetic Nervous System) Neurons (Associative, motor and sensory neuron) Discuss the Nervous disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease) What do you understand by Biological clock and circadian Rhythms?
e) Reproduction: Explain the Reproductive system in male in detail Explain the Reproductive system in female / Menstrual cycle Explain: - Spermatogenesis - Oogenesis Discuss the following Diseases in detail which are sexually transmitted: - Gonorrhea, Syphilis, AIDS and how these diseases can be controlled (treatment is not required)
f) Support and Movement: Explain the role of Human skeleton and skeletal muscles in locomotion Explain the process of muscle contraction What is Muscle fatigue, Tetani, Cramps? Describe the structure and functions of involuntary, voluntary and cardiac muscles
g) Hormonal control (Endocrine glands): What are hormones? Describe Hypothalamus with its hormones. Describe Pituitary gland with hormones secreted from its Anterior, Median and Posterior lobe Describe adrenal gland with its hormones. What are Islets of langerhans? What are the hormones of alimentary canal (Gastrin, secretin)? The hormones of ovaries and testes
h) Immunity: Immune system and define its components: - Antigen - Antibody (structure of antibody) - Lymphocytes (B and T cells) What is cell mediated response and humoral immune response? Types of Immunity: - Active immunity - Passive immunity What do you mean by vaccination?