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CSS Examination Syllabus - Geology


Paper I (Marks - 100)

  1. General Geology: Earth as a planet. its origin and age. Internal structure of the earth and lithospheric plates. Internal and external geological processes such as earth-quakes, volcanism, weathering, erosion and deposition. Geomorphic cycles.
  2. Structural Geology: Primary sedimentary structures. Mechanical properties of rocks. Description and classification of secondary structures. Structures in Metamorphic rocks. Orogeny and geosynclines in plate tectonic framework. Major tectonic features of the earth. Geodynamics of Pakistan.
  3. Palaeontology: Fossils and their preservation. Morphology, evolution and geologic distribution of major invertebrate phylla. Micropalaeontology of Foraminifera. Vertebrate and plant fossils.
  4. Stratigraphy: Stratigraphic nomenclature, and stratigraphic codes. Principles of correlation. Sedimentary basins of Pakistan and detailed stratigraphy of type sections.
  5. Mineralogy: Chemical composition of the earth crust. Minerals. their physical and chemical properties. Space lattice. symmetry classes and crystal systems. Crystal optics. Atomic structure of crystals and X-Ray diffraction. Detailed study of important rock forming minerals.
  6. Petrology: Origin and evolution of magma. Binary and Termary silicate systems. Description of important plutonic and volcanic associations. Sedimentary environments and processes. Petrography of major types of sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism. metamorphic zones and facies. Description of principle types of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism and magmatism in relation to plate tectonics.

Paper II (Marks - 100)

  1. Economic Geology: Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Detailed study of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits of Pakistan. Mineral based industries. Metallogeny of Pakistan.
  2. Energy Resources: Constitution and kinds of coal. Geology of Pakistan coal fields. Origin, migration and accumulation of natural hydro carbons. Oil well drilling and drilling muds. Oil and gas fields of Pakistan. Origin and occurrence of radioactive minerals. Pakistan resource of atomic energy minerals. Geothermal energy: recovery and uses.
  3. Engineering Geology: Geological factors in the construction of civil engineering projects. Geology of Dam Sites of Pakistan. Landslides and stability of slopes. Open and subsurface excavations. Construction materials and building stones. Site investigation and foundation analysis.
  4. Hydrogeology: Groundwater occurrence and types of acquifers. Movement of groundwater. Salinity and waterlogging. Water resources of Pakistan.
  5. Exploration Geology: Geological mapping and tradition prospecting methods. Photogeology and remote sensing mineral exploration. Disperson of trace elements and geochemical surveys. Geophysical techniques for prospecting of solid minerals, oil and water.

Suggested Readings

    • Title
    • Author
    • 1
    • The Evolving Earth
    • Sawkins & others
    • 2
    • Physical Geology
    • Skinner & Porter
    • 3
    • Structural Geology
    • Park
    • 4
    • Geodynamics of Pakistan
    • Farah & Dejong
    • 5
    • Invertibrate Palaentology
    • Moore, Laliker & Fisher
    • 6
    • Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
    • Krumbein & Sloss
    • 7
    • Stratigraphy of Pakistan
    • Ibrahim Shah
    • 8
    • Mineralogy
    • Berry & Manson
    • 9
    • Igneous & Metamorphic Petrology
    • Turner & Verhoogen
    • 10
    • Sedimentary Rocks
    • Pettjohn
    • 11
    • Mineral Directory of Pakistan
    • Zaki Ahmed
    • 12
    • Industrial Rocks and Minerals
    • Lefond
    • 13
    • Geology of Petroleum
    • Leverson
    • 14
    • Energy Resources
    • Brown & Skipsey
    • 15
    • Engineering Geology
    • Beavis
    • 16
    • Groundwater Hydrology
    • Todd
    • 17
    • Geological Prospecting
    • Kreiter
    • 18
    • Techniques in Mineral Exploration
    • Reedman

Check other Subjects and Syllabus below:

Compulsory Subjects

General Knowledge

Optional Subjects:

(subjects carrying a total of 600 marks to be selected)

Group A

Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Note: Business Administration cannot be opted in combination with Public Administration

Group B

Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Group C

Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Group D (Science Subjects )

Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Group E (History Subjects )

Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Group F

Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Note: International Law CANNOT BE opted in combination with International Relations.

Group G

Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.

Group H (Regional Languages )

Subject/s carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
Regional Languages: Not more than one of the 4 subjects can be opted.

Group I (National and Foreign Languages )

Subjects carrying not more than 200 marks can be opted.
National/Foreign/Classical Languages: Not more than one of 4 subjects can be opted. Note: Urdu can not be combined with Regional Languages.


 
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