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2nd Year Chemistry Guess Papers 2023
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12th Class Chemistry Guess Papers 2023
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12TH CLASS GUESS PAPER – 2023.
CHAPTER NO. 1:
PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENT AND PERIODICITY:
- Horization energy increases from left to right in a period? Justify the statement.
- What is lanthanide contraction?
- How does lanthanide contraction control the atomic size of elements of 6th and 7th periods?
- Give any two resemblances of hydrogen with group IV-A
- Justify the position of hydrogen at the top of VII A group.
- D and f-blocks elements are called transition elements. Give reason.
- Describe trend of metallic character in group and periods and discuss the impact of atomic size on it?
- Define electron affinity. How does it vary in groups and periods generally in periodic table?
- Explain similarities of hydrogen with halogens and dissimilarities with alkali metals.
- What are hydrides? Write down their classification and the properties of the covalent hydrides.
CHAPTER NO. 2 S- BLOCK ELEMENTS.
- Write formulas of Borax and Chile salt peter?
- Define alkali metals and alkaline earth metal.
- How will you distinguish between ethanol and propanol?
- What are the two major problems faced during the working of diaphragm cell?
- Give formulas of i) Natron ii) Halite.
- Discuss peculiar behavior of Li?
- Describe the process for the preparation of sodium metal on industrial scale by Down’s cell? What are advantages of this process?
- Describe commercial preparation of Sodium hydroxide by diaphragm cell or Nelson cell.
CHAPTER NO. 3 GROUP III A AND GROUP IV A ELEMENTS.
- Write down the chemical reactions involved in Borax best test.
- Why aqueous solution of Borax is alkaline in nature?
- How Borax is used as water softening agent?
- Why are borate glazes preferred over silicate glazes?
- Aluminum is not found in Free State give reason.
- How and under CO hat conditions does aluminum react with oxygen and hydrogen?
- What are uses of Boric Acid.
- Give the names along with the formulas of three important ores of aluminum.
- How will you convert boric acid into borax and vice versa?
CHAPTER NO. 4 GROUP VA AND GROUP VI A ELEMENTS.
- Why nitrogen is chemically inert at room temperature?
- How NO2 is prepared from?
- How does HNO2 acts as a reducing agent?
- Write two reactions of preparation of nitrous acid.
- Give definition of allotropy. Write allotropes of phosphorous?
- Write two points of difference between Red and White phosphorus.
- Give the balanced equation of reaction of Conc. H2SO4 with NaCl?
- What happen when HNO3 dil and conc. HNO3 react with the following?
- Cu ii) Hg iii) Sn iv) Zn
- Describe Birke land and Eyde’s process for the manufacture of Nitric acid.
- Discuss the various allotropes of phosphorus?
CHAPTER NO. 5 THE HALOGENS AND THE NOBLE GASES.
- Halogens are strong oxidizing agents justify?
- Why oxidizing power to halogens decreases down the group?
- HF is a weak acid. Why?
- Write the reaction of Cl2 with hot NaOH.
- What is meant by available chlorine?
- What is bleaching powder? How it is prepared?
- Write a brief note on nomenclature of oxyacid’s of halogens.
- How bleaching powder is prepared by Hasencleaver’s method? Give its reaction with HCle and NH3.
- What is Bleaching powder? How it is prepared commercially.
CHAPTER NO. 6 TRANSITION ELEMENTS.
- Write two properties of Transition metals?
- Which two transition element ions have strongest paramagnetic?
- Why does damaged tin plated iron get rusted quickly?
- Why most of the transition element form coloured compounds?
- Why maximum paramagnetic strength is associated with the middle elements of d-block series?
- Write a note : i) Binding energy ii) Paramagnetism.
- Explain the following properties for transition element. I) Paramagnetic ii) Colour
CHAPTER NO. 7 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
- What is vital force theory?
- What is the modern definition of Organic chemistry?
- What do you know about cracking of petroleum? Explain.
- What is Catalytic Cracking?
- Differentiate between homocyclic or heterocyclic compounds.
- Define functional group. Give two examples of oxygen containing functional group.?
- Define Tautomerism by giving one example.
- Why is there no free rotation abut a double bond but a free rotation about a single bond?
- Explain cracking of hydrocarbons giving its two types.
- Explain reforming of petroleum with the help of suitable example.
- Difference between homocyclic and heterocyclic compounds with two example each.
- Explain any four features of organic compound.
- What are aromatic hydro carbons? Howe are they classified?
CHAPTER NO. 8 ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS.
- Compare the reactivates of alkanes and alkenes.
- How methane is converted to formic acid.
- Give four uses of methane?
- Write effect of branching on melting point of alkanes.
- What is Raney- Nickel? Where it is used.
- How will you convert methane into ethane.
- Write structural formulas of the following. a) But-1-ene-3 –yne b) vinyl acetate.
- Describe with examples the acidic nature of alkynes?
- Write the Kolbe’s electrolytic method for the preparation of Ethyne along with mechanism.
- How will you synthesize the following compounds starting from Ethyne?
- Acetaldehyde ii) Methylnitrite iii) Ethane iv) Acrylonitrite.
- Define polymerization, explain polymerization reaction of acetylene.
CHAPTER NO. 9 AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
- How benzene is prepared from sodium benzoate and phenol?
- Write two objections that were raised on Kekule’s structure for benzene molecule.
- Describe the structure of Benzene on the basis of Resonance.
- How is benzene prepared from the given compounds? a) n-Hexane b) Sodium benzoate.
- Write down mechanism for Halogenation of benzene.
- Give reaction of Benzene with SO3.
- How will you prepare 2,4,4-trinitrotoluene from benzene in two steps.
- How will you prepare m-chloronitro benzene from benzene in two steps?
- What happens when chlorine is passed through Benzene is sunlight?
- Convert Benzene into. i) Cyclohexane ii) Maleic acid iii) Glyoxal
iv) Benzene sulphonic aicd.
- How benzene reacts with. i) Br2 (in presence of sunlight ) ii) H2
- Cl2 ( in presence of FeCl2) iv) CH3Cl ( in presence of AlCl3)
CHAPTER NO. 10 ALKYL –HALIDES.
- Give an excellent method for the preparation of simple alkyl iodides?
- Write down any two methods of preparation of alkyl halides.
- Give the general pattern of the reactions of sn2 mechanism.
- What is Wurtz synthesis?
- Write reaction to prepare tetra ethyl lead and Nitro ethane.
- How will you prepare the following compounds from ethyl bromide?
- Compare E2 and E1 mechanism for B-Elimination reactions.
CHAPTER NO. 11 ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS, ETHERS.
- Convert methanol to ethanol.
- Why the name and structures of two polyhydric or polyhydroxy alcohols.
- Differentiate between primary and secondary alcohols.
- Ethanol ha higher boiling point than diethyl ether. Give reason.
- Write structural formulas of the following compounds. a) carbolic acid b) glycerol
- Draw flow sheet diagram for manufacture of methanol.
- What is Lucas test? How will you distinguish between primary secondary and tertiary alcohols by this test?
- Write reaction of phenol with. a) Zn b) Br2 Water c) conc. HNO3 d) conc. H2SO4
- Explain following properties with reference phenol. i) Esterification ii) sulphonation.
CHAPTER NO. 12 ALDEHYDE AND KETONS.
- Convert calcium acetate to acetone.
- How acetaldehyde is prepared in industry?
- Convert acetaldehyde to tactic acid.
- Complete the following reactions. a) Formaldehyde + NaHSO3 b) Acetone+ NaHSO3
- How can you chemically distinguish between propene and propyne.
- Write laboratory and industrial preparation of acetaldehyde.
- Explain with mechanism the addition of sodium bi sulphite to acetone, what are uses of this reaction?
- What types of aldehydes give Cannizzaro’s reaction? Give its mechanism.
- Describe briefly the mechanism of nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl compound.
- Describe with mechanism aldol condensation reaction.Why formaldehyde does not give this reaction?
CHAPTER NO. 13 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS.
- How is ethanol converted into ethanoic acid?
- Draw structures of dimer of carboxylic acid.
- Write down mechanism of the reaction of SOCl2 with acetic acid?
- What happens when carboxylic acid reacts with metals? Give one example.
- Write down the structural formula of the following a) Acetic anhydride.
- What is vinegar? How is it prepared from ethyl alcohol?
- What is glacial acetic acid?
- Give any four uses of acetic acid.
CHAPTER NO. 14 MACROMOLECULES.
- What are macromolecules? Give five examples.
- What is the classification of polymer by keeping in view their structural aspects?
- What is the degree of polymerization? Give two examples.
- Where is starch found? How its structure made up.
- Where is cellulose found? What its structure?
- What do yu mean by the rancidity of oils and fats?
- What is the difference between a glycoside linkage and a peptide linkage?
- Define saponification number and iodine number. Discuss the term rancidity.
- What are nucleic acid? Write down the role of DNA and RNA in life.
CHAPTER NO. 15 COMMON CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN.
- What are prospects of fertilizer industry in Pakistan?
- Define cement? Give essential constituents of cement.
- Just write five-stages involved in the manufacturing of Portland cement.
- What is meant by setting of cement?
- Describe the composition of a good Portland cement.
- What are the prospects of paper industry in Pakistan?
CHAPTER NO. 16 COMMON CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN.
- Give three examples of condensed aromatic hydrocarbon and give their names.
- Write the reactions which give the evidence for the ring structure of benzene.
- Prepare maleic acid from benzene.
- What is difference between primary and secondary pollutants?
- What is ozone hole?
- Describe the natural and human sources of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide.
- How is oil spillage affecting the marine life?
- Discuss industrial waste effluents.