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Biology Guess Papers 2021 Class 12
12th Class Menu

The branch of science in which we study the life is called biology. Biology is a conceptual and interesting subject. Biology is a main subject for the students of fsc (pre medical). Biology is an important science subject of 12th class. Here, we are providing you the most important 2nd year biology guess papers 2021. Students can get good practice through these beneficial guess papers. After preparing these guess papers, students can better score in biology exam. For the pre medical students of 12th class, we are providing 12th class biology guess papers.

2nd Year Bology Guess Papers 2021

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ACCELERATED LEARNING PROGRAMME (ALP)

LAHORE, SAHIWAL, GUJRANWALA, FAISALABAD, MULTAN, BHAWALPUR,RAWALPINDI , DERA GHAZI KHAN, AZAD KAHSMIR , SARGODHA

                                     

12th CLASS BIOLOGY  GUESS PAPERS

 

CHAPTER NO.  15    HOMEOSTASIS

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. The protection of internal environment from the harms of fluctuation in external environment is termed as.
  1. Osmoregulation
  2. Thermoregulation
  3. Excretion
  4. Homeostasis
  1. The category of plants that has adaptation of small and thick leaves to limit water loss is called.
  1. Hydrophytes
  2. Xerophytes
  3. Mesophytes
  4. Aygrophytes
  1. Extracellular environment may be of diluted solution compared to the cell concentration designated as.
  1. Hypertonic
  2. Hypotonic
  3. Isotonic
  4. Paratonic
  1. Which one of the following is excretophore?
  1. Stem
  2. Leaves
  3. Roots
  4. Bark
  1. The excretory product that requires maximum water for its removal is.
  1. Ammonia
  2. Creatinine
  3. Urea
  4. Uric Acid
  1. Which of the following is not endotherm.
  1. Bird
  2. Amphibian
  3. Mammal
  4. Flying insect

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • Define Homeostasis.
  • Differentiate between osmoregulation and Thermoregulation.
  • What is Renal Failure?
  • Compare hypertonic and hypotonic environment.
  • Give the characteristics of xerophytic plants.
  • Define Anhydrobiosis with an example.
  • Why leaves are said to be excretophores.
  • Differentiate between ureotelic and uricotelic animals.
  • Give difference between Protonephridium and Metanephridium.
  • What are flame cells, why are these called so?
  • Give the special feature of Malpighian tubules.
  • What do you mean by Hyperoxaluria?
  • What are heat shock proteins?
  • Define Endotherms and ectotherms.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Discuss the nature of excretory product in different habitats.
  • Discuss the liver as an excretory organ.
  • Discuss excretion in Plants.
  • Discuss some kidney problem with their cures.

CHAPTER NO. 16   SUPPORTS AND MOVEMENT.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. Which of these is a direct source of energy for muscles contraction?
  1. ATP
  2. Creatine Phosphate
  3. Lactic acid
  4. Both a and b
  1. When muscle contracts.
  1. Sarcomere increase in size.
  2. Myosin slides past actin
  3. Lactic acid is produced
  4. Both a and b
  1. Thin filament in myofibrils consist of.
  1. Actin, tropomyosin, troponin
  2. Z-line
  3. Myosin
  4. Sarcomere
  1. In the Mammalian skeleton there is a distinct synovial joint between the.
  1. Bones of the cranium
  2. Humerus and ulna
  3. Sacrum of ilium
  4. Sternum and floating ribs
  1. Vertebral column includes.
  1. Sacrum
  2. Coccyx
  3. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
  4. All of the above

 

  1. In mammal the number of cervical vertebrae are.
  1. No definite number
  2. Seven
  3. Eleven
  4. Veries with the size of neck
  1. Brain is protected by.
  1. Cranium
  2. Skull
  3. Orbits
  4. All of these
  1. Brachioradialis causes the up lift of.
  1. Radius
  2. Ulna
  3. Botha a and b
  4. Humerus
  1. Muscle fatigue is caused by
  1. CO2
  2. Accumulation of lactating
  3. Fumaric acid
  4. Ethyl alcohol
  1. Cardiac muscles are.
  1. Voluntary
  2. Involuntary
  3. Botha a and b
  4. None of the above

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What is ligament?
  • Distinguish between the following.
  1. Bone and cartilage.
  2. Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
  3. Brachialis and brachioradialis
  • Define secondary growth and give its significance.
  • Write two characteristics of collenchymas tissues.
  • What is synovial joint?
  • What is Rickets? Give its treatment.
  • Differentiate between tendons and Ligaments.
  • Differentiate between active flight and passive flight.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Different between exoskeleton and Endoskeleton? Explain
  • Give an account of skull bones.
  • Describe different types of joints.
  • Explain Sliding Filament Model.
  • List the functions of skeleton.
  • List the main parts of axial skeleton.

CHAPTER NO.17    COORDINATION AND CONTROL.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. A nerve is a.
  1. Collection of neurons
  2. Concentration of dendrites and axons
  3. Bundles of axons or dentrites of neurons
  4. Bundle of axons or dendrites bounded by connective tissue.
  1. What is the number of cranial and spinal nerves in man?
  1. 12 and 31
  2. 24 and 62
  3. Both a and b
  4. None of the above

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What is the difference between CNS and PNS?
  • What are the functions of parathyroid gland?
  • Define the term hormone.
  • Write a note on Alzheimer’s disease.
  • What is Chlorosis?
  • Give two commercial applications of Gibberellins.
  • What is Reflex Arc.
  • List the four types of Hormones with examples.
  • Define Habituation with an example.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Describe in detail the role of adrenal glands.
  • Define nerve impulse, explain the mechanism involved by labelled diagrams.
  • Describe the structure and functions of the different parts of human brain.
  • Write note on pituitary gland.

CHAPTER NO.18   REPRODUCTION.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. Developing seeds are rich source of.
  1. Auxins
  2. Cytokinin
  3. Gibberellins
  4. All a, b, c
  1. Reproduction is very important to the survival of.
  1. Species
  2. Individual
  3. Population
  4. Both a and b
  1. Common methods of sexual reproduction are.
  1. Tissue culturing
  2. Identical twins
  3. Cloning
  4. All a ,b c,
  1. Photoperiod effects flowering when shoot meristem starts producing.
  1. Floral buds
  2. Leaves
  3. Lateral bud
  4. B and C

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • How is seed formed?
  • What is the importance of seed in the life cycle of a plant?
  • Define Parthenocarpy with examples.
  • Briefly describe vernalization.
  • What do you know about the term oviparity?
  • Explain Oestrous cycle.
  • Explain the role of gonadotropins in human female.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Describe human female’s menstrual cycle.
  • What are functions of placenta during pregnancy?

 

CHAPTER NO.19    GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. Neurula is the stage is which embryo has.
  1. Blastocoele
  2. The gornt layers
  3. Neural tube
  4. Archenterons
  1. The mesodermal cells do not invigilate but migrate medially and caudally from both side and create a midline thickening called.
  1. Henseon’s node
  2. Primitive streak
  3. Epiblas
  4. Hypoblast

SHORT QUESTIONS.

  • What is differentiation?
  • Differentiate between growth and development.
  • What is meristem?
  • Difference between primary growth and secondary growth.
  • How aging can be slowed down.
  • What are neoblasts?
  • Define Regeneration. Give one example.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Describe in detail the developmental process of chick
  • What is development, describe the principles of development in detail.

CHAPTER NO.20   CHROMOSOMES AND DNA.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. mRNA is synthesized by.
  1. DNA Polymerase
  2. RNA polymerase
  3. RNA ligase
  4. None of above
  1. Which of the following are nonsense codons?
  1. AUG
  2. UAA
  3. CUA
  4. All of above
  1. Enzymes are responsible for assembly of.
  1. Nucleic acid
  2. Protein
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. All a,b,c.
  1. In bacteria the newly synthesized  mRNA is released in.
  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Mitochondria
  4. In b and c

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What are the three major classes of RNA?
  • What is the function of RNA polymerase in transcription?
  • What is anticodon?
  • Differentiate between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin.
  • Define Nucleotide and Nucleoside.
  • Define Promoter.
  • Define Central dogma and name it stow steps.
  • Define codon and anticodon.
  • What are point mutations? Give examples.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Prove that DNA is the heredity material.
  • How did Meselson and Stahi show that DNA replication is semi conservative.

CHAPTER NO. 21  CELL CYCLE

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. In klinefelter’s syndrome.
  1. One x chromosome is missing
  2. Additional sex chromosome is present
  3. Sex chromosomes fail to segregate
  4. None of these
  1. Mitosis is divided into
  1. Karyokinesis
  2. Cytokinesis
  3. Interphase
  4. Both a and b
  1. Separation of homologous chromosomes occurs during.
  1. Prophase
  2. Metaphas
  3. Telophas
  4. Anaphase

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What are the functions of mitotic apparatus?
  • How can you identify the cancer cells?
  • Give importance and significance of meiosis
  • Define chromosomal non disjunction.
  • What are symptoms of Turner’s syndrome?
  • Define cell cycle. Highlight its importance and significance.
  • Is interphase a resting phase? Why?
  • Write any two difference between normal cells.
  • How meiosis plays its role in producing genetic variations?
  • Differentiate apoptosis from necrosis.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Why and how do the chromosomes get separated during anaphase of mitosis?
  • What is the role of centriole in an animal cell? How is this function carried out in plant cell?
  • Define disjunction and discuss its effect.
  • Describe meiosis and explain its significance.

CHAPTER NO.  22   VARIATION AND GENETICS.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. What happens when both alleles of a gene pair independently express in a heterozygote?
  1. Dominance
  2. Incomplete dominance
  3. Over dominance
  4. Codominance
  1. A heterozygote offspring quantitatively exceeds the phenotypic expression of both the homozygote parents due to.
  1. Dominance
  2. Incomplete dominance
  3. Over dominance
  4. Codominance
  1. Which of the following traits is transmitted directly form an affected father to only his sons..
  1. Autosomal
  2. X-linked
  3. Y-linked
  4. X and Y linked
  1. Which phenomenon reduces the chance of genetic recombination and variations among offspring?
  1. Linkage
  2. Crossing over
  3. Independent assortment
  4. Dominance
  1. Which of the following traits is not sex – linked recessive.
  1. Haemophilia
  2. Colour blindness
  3. Hypophosphatcmic ricket
  4. tfm syndrome
  1. Which of these traits zigzags from maternal grandfather through a carrier daughter toa grandson?
  1. Autosomal
  2. X-linked
  3. Y-linked
  4. X and Y linked
  1. When a haemophilic carrier women marries a normal man, who among her offspring may be affected.
  1. All her children
  2. All her daughters
  3. Half of her daughters
  4. Half of her sons
  1. What is the risk of a colour –blind child in a family when mother is colour-blind but father is normal?
  1. 100%
  2. 75%
  3. 50%
  4. 25%

 

  1. What is the risk of a colour-blind child in a family when father is colour-blind but mother is normal..
  1. Zero%
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 100%

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • Difference between Phenotype and Genotype.
  • Difference between Gene and Allele.
  • Difference between Homozygote and Heterozygote.
  • What is over –dominance?
  • Define co-dominance with one example.
  • Difference between linkage and linkage group.
  • Difference between sex chromosome and autosomes.
  • What is a Sex-limited trait? Give an example.
  • What is Multifactorial trait? Give an example.
  • What is MODY?

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • What is incomplete dominance? Explain it with example.
  • Define and explain test cross. Also give its significance.
  • Describe different patterns of sex. Determination.
  • Explain XO-XX and ZZ-ZW types of sex determination.
  • Explain the phenomenon of sex determination in humans.

CHAPTER NO.23   BIO TECHNOLOGY.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. Which of these is a true statement?
  1. Both plasmids and viruses can serve as vectors.
  2. Plasmids can carry recombinant DNA but viruses can not
  3. Vectors carry only the foreign gene into the host cell.
  4. Only gene therapy uses vectors.
  5. Both a and d are correct
  1. Which of these is a benefit to having insulin produced by biotechnology.
  1. It is just as effective
  2. It can be mass produced
  3. It is non-allergenic
  4. It is less expensive
  5. All of these are correct
  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism.
  1. Are achived by using restriction enzymes?
  2. Identify individuals genetically
  3. Are the basis for DNA finger prints
  4. Can be subjected to gel electrophoresis
  5. All of these are correct
  1. Which of these would you not expect to be a biotechnology?
  1. Vaccine
  2. Modified enzyme
  3. DNA probes
  4. Protein hormones
  5. Steroid hormone
  1. What is the benefit of using a retrovirus as a vector in gene therapy?
  1. It is not able to enter cells
  2. It incorporates the foreign gene into the host chromosome
  3. It eliminates a lot of unnecessary steps
  4. It prevents infection by other viruses
  5. Both b and c are correct.
  1. Gel electrophoresis.
  1. Cannot be used on nucleotides
  2. Measures the size of plasmids
  3. Tells whether viruses are infections
  4. Measure the change and size of proteins and DNA fragments
  5. All of these are correct

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • How and why transgenic animals secrete a product are often cloned?
  • Explain and give examples of ex vivo and in vivo gene therapies in humans.
  • What do you know about palindromic sequence?
  • Give any two requirements to produce recombinant DNA.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • What is the methodology for producing recombinant DNA to be used in gene cloning?
  • What is the polymerase chain reaction and how is it carried out to produce multiple copies of a DNA segment.
  • What is DNA finger printing, a process that utilizes the entire genome?
  • For what purpose have bacteria, plants and animals been genetically altered?

CHAPTER NO.24   EVOLUTION.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. Darwin’s theory, as presented in “The Origin of Species.” Mainly concerned.
  1. How new species arise
  2. The origin of life
  3. How adaptations evolve
  4. How extinctions occur
  5. The genetics of evolution
  1. The smallest biological unit that can evolve over theme is.
  1. A particular cell
  2. An individual organism
  3. A population
  4. A species
  5. An ecosystem
  1. A gene pool consists of.
  1. All the alleles exposed to natural selection.
  2. The total of all alleles present in a population.
  3. The entire genome of a reproducing individual
  4. The frequencies of the alleles for a gene locus within a population.
  5. All the gametes in a population.
  1. Selection acts directly on.
  1. Phenotype
  2. Genotype
  3. The entire genome
  4. Each allel
  5. The entire gene pool

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What are hydrothermal vents?
  • State Endosymbiont hypothesis.
  • How does fossil record provide evidence of evolution?
  • Define population genetics.
  • Explain the term homology with a suitable example.
  • What are vestigial organs? Give two examples.
  • How are evolutionary relationships reflected in DNA and proteins?
  • Define homologous organs, give one example.
  • What are vestigial organs? Name some important vestigial organs of man.
  • Define Hardy-Weinberg theorem, Give its formula.
  • Difference between endangered and threatened species.
  • How man is responsible to increase the number of endangered species.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Describe evidences of evolution form any five branches of biology
  • How did evolution proceed from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
  • Analyze the Darwin’s theory of natural selection as mechanism of evolution.

CHAPTER NO.25   ECOSYSTEM.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. The study of the relationships of organisms to their environment is known as.
  1. Biology
  2. Ecology
  3. Zoology
  4. My cology
  1. Similar group of individuals who can inter breed and produce organisms of their own kind forms a.
  1. Population
  2. community
  3. species
  4. Succession
  1. When living and non-living interact to produce a stable system in which exchange of materials with flow energy takes place, it forms a/an
  1. Environment
  2. Ecosystem
  3. Stabel community
  4. Ecological succession

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What are the biogeochemical cycles?
  • Sketch three main steps in nitrogen cycle.
  • What do you know about the term ecosystem?
  • Define population and community.
  • Define Biosphere.
  • Differentiate between synecology and Autecology.
  • How primary succession differs from secondary succession?
  • Difference between Hydrosere and Xerosere.
  • Different between Ectoparasite and Endoparasite.
  • Define commensalism with example.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Define environment. What must environment supply for insects, green plants, birds, animals and people?
  • What factors in the environment can affect all living things? Are they important to survive in a biome?
  • What can you conclude about all the physical and biological factors in an environment
  • What is biosphere? What must the biosphere provide for living things? Why is biosphere absent on moon?
  • Define ecosystem, describe its biotic components.
  • Explain Xerosere succession stages.
  • Give the account of Nitrogen cycle.
  • How does energy flow in a food chain of an ecosystem? Discuss.
  • Compare food chain with food web.

CHAPTER NO. 26   SOME MAJOR ECOSYSTEMS.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

  1. In which type of ecosystem is the smallest fraction of nutrients present in into soil.
  1. Savanna
  2. Tundra
  3. Grassland
  4. Desert
  1. What biome has the richest soil with nutrients and can be converted into agriculture?
  1. Deciduous forest
  2. Tropical rain forest
  3. Grass land
  4. Coniferous forest

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • Name three zones in Lake Ecosystem.
  • Give the names of some major ecosystem on land in Pakistan.
  • Define weather and climate.
  • What is productivity of an ecosystem?
  • Differentiate between Alpine and Boreal forests.
  • Short note on Deserts of Pakistan.

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • List some adaptations of.
  1. Desert plants
  2. Desert animals to heat and drought
  • Distinguish between three different zones in the lake-ecosystem.

CHAPTER NO.27   MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT.

MULTIPLE CHOICE:

NO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:

SHORT QUESTIONS:

  • What is ozone layer?
  • What do you mean by non-renewable resources?
  • What is difference between deforestation and afforestation?
  • What is water pollution?
  • What is acid rain?
  • What is algal bloom?
  • Define wild life, Give its important role.
  • Differentiate between deforestation and afforestation.
  • What is Ozone layer?

LONG QUESTIONS:

  • Can you differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources with examples? How has man exploited these resources?
  • What is pollution and pollutant, which type of pollution causes ozone layer depletion, greenhouse effect and acid rain.
  • Can you explain he phenomena of “eutrophication” by which type of pollution may it occur and why?
  • Why is there a need of protection and conservation of the environment?
  • Describe the importance of forests?
  • Explain Green House Effect and Acid Rain.
  • Write down a comprehensive note on ozone layer and ozone layer depletion.

 

 

 




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