When we are suddenly confronted with any terrible danger, the change of nature we undergo is equally great.In some cases, fear paralyses us.Like animals we stand powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand in defence of our lives and somtimes we are seized with panic,and again act more like the inferior animals than beigns.On the other hand,frequnetly in case of sudden extreme perill,which cannot be escaped by fright and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle,become possessed of the necessary courage sharp quick apprehension,and swift decision.This is a miracle very common in nature.Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain death gather resolution from despair' but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting,or prepared to fight for dear life.At such times,the mind is clearer than it has ever been: the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a wonderful strength and daring.Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life,I remember them with a kind of joy,not that there was any joyful excitement them; but because they brought me a new experience,a new nature, as it were and lifted me for a time above myself.ii.The author names three different ways in which a man react to sudden danger.What are they?
A great deal of discussion continues as to the real extent of global environmental degradation and its implications. What few people challenge however is that the renewable natural resources of developing countries are today subject to 'stresses of unprecedented magnitude. These pressures are brought about, in part, by increased population and the quest for an ever-expanding food supply. Because the health, nutrition, and general well-being of the poor majority are directly dependent on the integrity and productivity of their natural resources, the capability of governments to manage them effectively over the long term becomes of paramount importance. Developing countries are becoming more aware of the ways in which present and future economic development must build upon a sound and sustainable natural resource base. Some are looking at our long tradition in environmental protection and are receptive to US assistance, which recognizes the uniqueness of the social and ecological systems in these tropical countries. Developing countries recognize the need to improve their capability to analyze issues and their own natural resource management. In February 1981, for example AID handed a national Academy of Sciences panel to advise Nepal on their severe natural resource degradation problems. Some countries such as Senegal, India, Indonesia and Thailand, are now including conservation concerns in their economic development planning process. Because so many governments of developing nations have recognized the importance of these issues, the need today is not merely one of raising additional consciousness, but for carefully designed and sharply focused activities aimed at management regimes that are essential to the achievement of sustained development.
Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the entire population of all age groups. While the traditional structure of education as a three layer hierarchy from the primary stage to the university represents the core, we should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions, workers need to rewind, or renew their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction, or improve their skills as much as any university professor. The retired and the aged have their needs as well. Educational planning, in their words, should take care of the needs of everyone. Our structures of education have been built up on the assumption that there is a terminal point to education. This basic defect has become all the more harmful today. A UNESCO report entitled 'Learning to Be' prepared by Edgar Faure and others in 1973 asserts that the education of children must prepare the future adult for various forms of self-learning. A viable education system of the future should consist of modules with different kinds of functions serving a diversity of constituents. And performance, not the period of study, should be the basis for credentials. The writing is already on the wall. In view of the fact that the significance of a commitment of lifelong learning and lifetime education is being discussed only in recent years even in educationally advanced countries, the possibility of the idea becoming an integral part of educational thinking seems to be a far cry. For, to move in that direction means such more than some simple rearrangement of the present organization of education. But a good beginning can be made by developing Open University programs for older learners of different categories and introducing extension services in the conventional colleges and schools. Also these institutions should learn to cooperate with the numerous community organizations such as libraries, museums, municipal recreational programs, health services etc.
Q:In the context of the passage, what is the meaning of the sentence 'The writing is already on the wall'?
Power and possession have been central pursuits of modem civilization for a long time. They blocked out or distorted other features of the western renaissance (revival) which promised so much for humanity. What people have been and are still being taught to prize is money, success, and control over the lives of others, acquisition of more and more objects. Modern social, political, and economic systems, whether capitalist, fascist or communist, reject in their working the basic principle that the free and creative enfoldment of every man, woman and child is the true measure of the worth of any society. Such enfoldment requires understanding and imagination, integrity and compassion, cooperation among people and harmony between the human species and the rest of nature. Acquisitiveness and the pursuit of power have made the modern man an aggressor against everything that is non-human, an exploiter, and oppressor of those who are poor, meek, and unorganized, a pathological type which hates and distrusts the world and suffers from both acute loneliness and false pride. The need for a new renaissance is deeply felt by those sensitive and conscientious men and women who not only perceive the dimensions of the crisis of our age but who also realize that only through conscious and cooperative human effort may this crisis be met and probably even overcome.
Q:The modern value systems encourage the importance of which one of the following?