Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to protect the weak against the strong. No 'era of good feeling' can justify discharging the police force or giving up the idea of public control over concentrated private wealth. On the other hand, it is obvious that a spirit of self-denial and moderation on the part of those who hold economic power will greatly soften the demand for absolute equality. Men are more interested in freedom and security than in an equal distribution of wealth. The extent to which Government must interfere with business, therefore, is not exactly measured by the extent to which economic power is concentrated into a few hands. The required degree of government interference depends mainly on whether economic powers are oppressively used, and on the necessity of keeping economic factors in a tolerable state of balance.
But with the necessity of meeting all these dangers and threats to liberty, the powers of government are unavoidably increased, whichever political party may be in office. The growth of government is a necessary result of the growth of technology and of the problems that go with the use of machines and science. Since the Government in our nation, must take on more powers to meet its problems, there is no way to preserve freedom except by making democracy more powerful.
The low unit of gas is a real temptation to anyone choosing between gas and electrical processes.But gas-fired processes are often less efficient, require more floor space,take longer and produce more variable product quality,the drawbacks negate the savings many businesses believe they make,By contrast, electricity harnesses a unique range of technologies unavailable with gas and many electric processes are well over 90 percent so far less energy is wasted with benefits in terms of products quality and overall cleanliness it can so often be the better and cheaper choice Isn't that tempting?i.The passage can be described as:
When we are suddenly confronted with any terrible danger, the change of nature we undergo is equally great.In some cases, fear paralyses us.Like animals we stand powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand in defence of our lives and somtimes we are seized with panic,and again act more like the inferior animals than beigns.On the other hand,frequnetly in case of sudden extreme perill,which cannot be escaped by fright and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle,become possessed of the necessary courage sharp quick apprehension,and swift decision.This is a miracle very common in nature.Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain death gather resolution from despair' but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting,or prepared to fight for dear life.At such times,the mind is clearer than it has ever been: the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a wonderful strength and daring.Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life,I remember them with a kind of joy,not that there was any joyful excitement them; but because they brought me a new experience,a new nature, as it were and lifted me for a time above myself.i.An appropriate title for the above passage would be:
The past decade has upset many preconceptions above development and this, more than anything else, makes it difficult to be overly definite about what the next decade has in store. However, there are a few things that one can assert with some confidence. First, education, health, and productive employment are crucial both for growth and for equity. We have tended to assume that all of these are the consequences of rapid economic growth and that only growth can generate the resources required for these purposes. However, increasingly, it appears that these are better seen as the causes rather than as consequences of development. Virtually every case of successful development involves a prior improvement in literacy, technical skills, health status, and access to productive work. Second, technological competence is the most important resource endowment and it explains a tar larger proportion of growth in output and trade than more conventional factors like natural resources or capital accumulation. The competence required is not just in research. In fact technological dynamism in the factory and the farm is more important than the presence of large research establishment. Third, the environmental imperative can no longer be ignored. Today, as an international issue, it is second only to disarmament. Nationally, the developmental consequences of environmental neglect are increasingly obvious. In the Pakistani context, there are at least two further factors, which reinforce the above propositions. The first is population growth. Given the pace of expansion of the population and the work force, human resource development acquires an added urgency. Population growth is also one, but not necessarily the most important factor, which underlines environmental stress in rural and urban areas. The second factor is that as a large country we cannot carve out an independent positioning the global system without building up a substantial capacity for self-reliant growth. The acquisition of technical competence is crucial for this purpose. Until now, we have tended to treat human resource development, technology issues and environment as subsidiary to the main task of planning. The thrust has been on: quantitative expansion of infrastructure and production with a focus on production targets like tones of steel, kWh of electricity etc., capacity targets like road length, rail kilometer age; and coverage targets like number of
schools and students, number of villages electrified etcetera, catching up with known technologies -Fuller use of natural resources -Maximum mobilization of financial resources.
Q:What seems to be the purpose of the author in writing this passage?
Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the entire population of all age groups. While the traditional structure of education as a three layer hierarchy from the primary stage to the university represents the core, we should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions, workers need to rewind, or renew their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction, or improve their skills as much as any university professor. The retired and the aged have their needs as well. Educational planning, in their words, should take care of the needs of everyone. Our structures of education have been built up on the assumption that there is a terminal point to education. This basic defect has become all the more harmful today. A UNESCO report entitled 'Learning to Be' prepared by Edgar Faure and others in 1973 asserts that the education of children must prepare the future adult for various forms of self-learning. A viable education system of the future should consist of modules with different kinds of functions serving a diversity of constituents. And performance, not the period of study, should be the basis for credentials. The writing is already on the wall. In view of the fact that the significance of a commitment of lifelong learning and lifetime education is being discussed only in recent years even in educationally advanced countries, the possibility of the idea becoming an integral part of educational thinking seems to be a far cry. For, to move in that direction means such more than some simple rearrangement of the present organization of education. But a good beginning can be made by developing Open University programs for older learners of different categories and introducing extension services in the conventional colleges and schools. Also these institutions should learn to cooperate with the numerous community organizations such as libraries, museums, municipal recreational programs, health services etc.
Q:Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the phrase 'a far cry' as used in the passage?