The Romans--for centuries is the masters of war and politics Europe,Northern Africa,and Asia Minor---have often been criticised for producing few original thinkers outside the realm of politics.This criticism while in many ways true,is not without its problems.it was after all the conquest of Greece that provided Rome with its greatest influx of educated subjects two of the great disasters in intellectual history---the murder of Archimedes and the burning of Alexandria's libarary ---both occurred under Rome's watch.Nevertheless,a city that was able to conquer so much of the known world could not have been devoid of the creativity that characterizes so many other ancient empires.Engineering is one endeavour in which the Romans showed themselves capable.Their aqueducts carried water hundreds of miles along the tops vast arcades.Roman roads built for the rapid deployment of troops,crisscross Europe and still from the basis of numerous modern highways that provide quick access between many major European and African cities,indeed a large number of these cities owe their prominence to Rome's economic and political influence.Many of those major cities lie far beyond rome's original's province,and Latin-derived languages are spoken in most Southern European nations.Again a result of military influence,the popularity of Latin and its offspring is difficult to overestimate.During the centuries of ignorance and violence that followed Rome's decline, the Latin language was the glue that held together the identity of an entire continent.While seldom spoken today,it is still studied widely if only so that such master of rhetoric as Cicero can be read in the original.It is Cicero and his like who are perhaps the most overlooked legacy of Rome.While far from being a democracy,Rome did leave behind useful political tool that serve the American republic today."Republic" itself is Latin for "the people's business" a notion cherished in democracies worldwide.Senators owe their name to Rome's class of elders; Representatives owe theirs to the Tributes who seized popular prerogatives from the Senatorial class.The veto was a Roman notion adopted by the historically aware framers of the Constitution,who often assumed pen names from the lexion of Latin life.These accomplishments,as monumental as any highway of coliseum,remain prominent features of the Western landscape.v. The primary purpose of the passage is to:
The past decade has upset many preconceptions above development and this, more than anything else, makes it difficult to be overly definite about what the next decade has in store. However, there are a few things that one can assert with some confidence. First, education, health, and productive employment are crucial both for growth and for equity. We have tended to assume that all of these are the consequences of rapid economic growth and that only growth can generate the resources required for these purposes. However, increasingly, it appears that these are better seen as the causes rather than as consequences of development. Virtually every case of successful development involves a prior improvement in literacy, technical skills, health status, and access to productive work. Second, technological competence is the most important resource endowment and it explains a tar larger proportion of growth in output and trade than more conventional factors like natural resources or capital accumulation. The competence required is not just in research. In fact technological dynamism in the factory and the farm is more important than the presence of large research establishment. Third, the environmental imperative can no longer be ignored. Today, as an international issue, it is second only to disarmament. Nationally, the developmental consequences of environmental neglect are increasingly obvious. In the Pakistani context, there are at least two further factors, which reinforce the above propositions. The first is population growth. Given the pace of expansion of the population and the work force, human resource development acquires an added urgency. Population growth is also one, but not necessarily the most important factor, which underlines environmental stress in rural and urban areas. The second factor is that as a large country we cannot carve out an independent positioning the global system without building up a substantial capacity for self-reliant growth. The acquisition of technical competence is crucial for this purpose. Until now, we have tended to treat human resource development, technology issues and environment as subsidiary to the main task of planning. The thrust has been on: quantitative expansion of infrastructure and production with a focus on production targets like tones of steel, kWh of electricity etc., capacity targets like road length, rail kilometer age; and coverage targets like number of
schools and students, number of villages electrified etcetera, catching up with known technologies -Fuller use of natural resources -Maximum mobilization of financial resources.
Q:What seems to be the purpose of the author in writing this passage?
Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the entire population of all age groups. While the traditional structure of education as a three layer hierarchy from the primary stage to the university represents the core, we should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions, workers need to rewind, or renew their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction, or improve their skills as much as any university professor. The retired and the aged have their needs as well. Educational planning, in their words, should take care of the needs of everyone. Our structures of education have been built up on the assumption that there is a terminal point to education. This basic defect has become all the more harmful today. A UNESCO report entitled 'Learning to Be' prepared by Edgar Faure and others in 1973 asserts that the education of children must prepare the future adult for various forms of self-learning. A viable education system of the future should consist of modules with different kinds of functions serving a diversity of constituents. And performance, not the period of study, should be the basis for credentials. The writing is already on the wall. In view of the fact that the significance of a commitment of lifelong learning and lifetime education is being discussed only in recent years even in educationally advanced countries, the possibility of the idea becoming an integral part of educational thinking seems to be a far cry. For, to move in that direction means such more than some simple rearrangement of the present organization of education. But a good beginning can be made by developing Open University programs for older learners of different categories and introducing extension services in the conventional colleges and schools. Also these institutions should learn to cooperate with the numerous community organizations such as libraries, museums, municipal recreational programs, health services etc.
Q:According to the passage, the present education structures assume which of the following?