The Romans--for centuries is the masters of war and politics Europe,Northern Africa,and Asia Minor---have often been criticised for producing few original thinkers outside the realm of politics.This criticism while in many ways true,is not without its problems.it was after all the conquest of Greece that provided Rome with its greatest influx of educated subjects two of the great disasters in intellectual history---the murder of Archimedes and the burning of Alexandria's libarary ---both occurred under Rome's watch.Nevertheless,a city that was able to conquer so much of the known world could not have been devoid of the creativity that characterizes so many other ancient empires.Engineering is one endeavour in which the Romans showed themselves capable.Their aqueducts carried water hundreds of miles along the tops vast arcades.Roman roads built for the rapid deployment of troops,crisscross Europe and still from the basis of numerous modern highways that provide quick access between many major European and African cities,indeed a large number of these cities owe their prominence to Rome's economic and political influence.Many of those major cities lie far beyond rome's original's province,and Latin-derived languages are spoken in most Southern European nations.Again a result of military influence,the popularity of Latin and its offspring is difficult to overestimate.During the centuries of ignorance and violence that followed Rome's decline, the Latin language was the glue that held together the identity of an entire continent.While seldom spoken today,it is still studied widely if only so that such master of rhetoric as Cicero can be read in the original.It is Cicero and his like who are perhaps the most overlooked legacy of Rome.While far from being a democracy,Rome did leave behind useful political tool that serve the American republic today."Republic" itself is Latin for "the people's business" a notion cherished in democracies worldwide.Senators owe their name to Rome's class of elders; Representatives owe theirs to the Tributes who seized popular prerogatives from the Senatorial class.The veto was a Roman notion adopted by the historically aware framers of the Constitution,who often assumed pen names from the lexion of Latin life.These accomplishments,as monumental as any highway of coliseum,remain prominent features of the Western landscape.iii.According to the passage,which of the following accurately describes the Latin language?
Few plants can grow beneath the canopy of the sycamore tree, whose leaves produce a natural herbicide that leaches into the surrounding soil, ............ other plants that might compete for water and nutrients.
After submitting his resignation Albert came out and took the long narrow road leading to the railway station which was one of the busiest roads in the city.Sad and depressed and worried about looking for a new job Albert looked around for a cigarette shop He walked up to the end of the road but found no tobacconist It was odd that such a busy thoroughfare with thousands of people passing through did not even have a single cigarette shop he suddenly felt that it was no longer necessary for him to hunt for a job.He decided to open a tobacco shop himself it was bound to be profitable he felt.ii.Albert was sad and depressed because:
There was a marked difference of quality between the personages who haunted the near bridge of brick and the personages who hunted the far one of stone.Those of lowest character preferred the former, adjoining the town: they did not mind the glare of the public eye.They had been of no account during their success and though they might feel dispirited they had no sense of shame in their ruin.Instead of sighing at their adversaries they spat, and instead of saying the iron had entered into their luck.The miserables who would pause on the remoter bridge were of a politer stamp-persons who did not know how to get rid of the weary time.The eyes species were mostly directed over the parapet upon the running water below. While one on the downward bridge did not mind who saw him so and kept his back to the parapet to survey the passerby,one on this never faced the road,never a stranger approached,as if some strange fish interested him though every finned thing had been poached out of the river years before.v.In this passage,the author is trying to:
The public distribution system, which provides food at low prices, is a subject of vital concern. There is a growing realization that though Ethiopia has enough food to feed its masses two square meals a day, the monster of starvation and food insecurity continues to haunt the poor in the country. Increasing the purchasing power of the poor through providing productive employment leading to rising income, and thus good standard of living is the ultimate objective of public policy. However, till then, there is a need to provide assured supply of food through a restructured, more efficient and decentralized public distribution system (PDS). Although the PDS is extensive - it is one of the largest such systems in the world - it has yet to reach the rural poor and the far off places. It remains an urban phenomenon, with the majority of the rural poor still out of its reach due to lack of economic and physical access. The poorest in the cities and the migrants are left out, for they generally do not possess ration cards. The allocation of PDS supplies in big cities is larger than in rural areas. In view of such deficiencies in the system, the PDS urgently needs to be streamlined. In addition, considering the large food grains production combined with food subsidy on one hand and the continuing slow starvation and dismal poverty of the rural population on the other, there is a strong case for making PDS target group oriented. The growing salaried class is provided job security., regular income, and percent insulation agaifl inflation. These gains of development have hot percolated down to the vast majority of our working population. If one compares only dearness allowance to the employees in public and private sector and looks at its growth in the past few years, the rising food subsidy is insignificant to the point of inequity. The food subsidy is a kind of D.A. to the poor, the self-employed and those in the unorganized sector of the economy. However, what is most unfortunate is that out of the large budget of the so-called food subsidy, the major part of it is administrative cost and wastages. A small portion of the above budget goes to the real consumer and an even lesser portion to the poor who are in real need. It is true that subsidies should not become a permanent feature, except for the destitute, disabled widows and the old. It is also true that subsidies often create a psychology of dependence and hence is habit-forming, killing the general initiative of the people. By making PDS target group oriented, not only the poorest and neediest would be reached without additional cost, but it will actually cut overall costs incurred on large cities and for better off localities. When the food and food subsidy are limited the rural and urban poor should have the priority in the PDS supplies. The PDS should be closely linked with programs of employment generation and nutrition improvement.
Q:What, according to the passage, is the main concern about the PDS?