Question # 1
Q.2 The public distribution system which provides food at low prices is a subject of vital concern There is a growing realization that though Pakistan has enough food to feed its masses three square meals a day the monster of starvation and food insecurity continues to haunt the poor in our country Increasing the purchasing power of the poor through providing productive employment leading to rising income and thus good standard of living is the ultimate objective of public policy.However till then there is a need to provide assured supply of food through a restructured more efficient and decentralized public distribution system (PDS).Although the PDS is extensive it is one of the largest such systems in the world it has yet to reach the rural poor and the far off places it remains an urban phenomenon with the majority of the rural poor still out of its reach due to lack of economic and physical access the poorest in the cities and the migrants are left out for they generally do not possess ration cards The allocation of PDS supplies in big cities is larger than in rural areas  in view of urgently needs to be streamlined.In addition considering the large food grains production combined with food subsidy on one hand and the continuing slow starvation and dismal poverty of the rural population on the other there is a strong case for making PDS target group oriented.The growing salaried class is provided job security regular income and percent insulation against these gains of development have not percolated down to the vast majority of our working population.If one only dearness allowance to the employees in public and private sector and looks at its growth in the past few years the rising food subsidy is insignificant to the point of inequity The food subsidy is a kind of D.A to the poor the self-employed and those in the unorganized sector of the economy.It is true that subsidies should not become a permanent feature except for the destitute disabled widows and the old it is also true dependence and hence is habit-forming killing the general initiative of the people by making PDS target group oriented not only the poorest and neediest would be reached without additional cost but it will actually cut overall costs incurred on large cities and for better off localities when the food and food subsidy are limited the rural and urban poor should have the priority in the PDS supplies The PDS should be closely linked with programs of employment generation and nutrition improvement.
i. Food subsidy leads to which of the following 

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