Dengue infection is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. Approximately 100 million people are infected yearly. It is a virus based disease spread by mosquitoes and Dengue is caused by any one of four related viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. It is spread by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito “Aedes aegypti”, which is found in tropic and subtropical areas. South and Central America, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa. Up till now there is no any vaccine to prevent infection with dengue virus (DENV) and the most effective protective measures are those that avoid mosquito bites. Infections can be cured by early recognition and early treatment; it can lower the risks of developing its severe conditions. Dengue is also known by some other names, including "break bone" or "dandy fever." Sufferers of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain, hence the name break bone fever.
In 1950, dengue arises as a worldwide problem. Mosquitos causing this disease usually flourish during rainy seasons, in water filled flower pots, plastic bags or water filled tanks. One mosquito bite can cause the disease and the virus is not contagious and cannot be spread directly from person to person. There must be a person to mosquito to another person pathway.
Dengue fever arises with a sudden high fever, often as high as 104 - 105 degrees Fahrenheit. In the first stage it causes allergy on the skin, red rashes may appear over most of the body 2 to 5 days after the fever starts. At second stage, looks like the measles, appears later in the disease. Infected people may have increased skin sensitivity, Headache (especially behind the eyes), Fatigue, Nausea, Joint aches, Muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes and vomiting. It results in the less percentage of platelets in victim’s blood.
Signs and tests
Different medical may be done to diagnose the disease
- Antibody titer for dengue virus types
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Serology studies to look for antibodies to dengue viruses
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. You will need fluids if there are signs of dehydration. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is used to treat a high fever. Avoid taking aspirin and add juices in your diet.
Full Clothing, use of mosquito repellent lotions and sprays, and netting can help reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Traveling during periods of minimal mosquito activity can also be helpful. Mosquito reduction programs may reduce the risk of infection.
Fever is a more severe form of the viral illness. Indicators include headache, fever, rash, and evidence of hemorrhage in the body. Petechial (small red or purple blisters under the skin), bleeding in the nose or gums, black stools, or easy bruising are all possible signs of hemorrhage. This form of dengue fever can be life-threatening and can progress to the most severe form of the illness, dengue shock syndrome.
In Pakistan it is spreading rapidly, every year thousands of people suffer from this disease and many of them lose their life because of this fatal disease. This disease is curable. To reduce the level of sickness from dengue fever it is needed to spray anti mosquito repellants at the national level and to cover up water tanks at homes and avoid going outside at the time of mosquito spreading. Disease can be cured by proper and initial treatment. Close your doors and windows at the most probable time of dengue attack in the morning and evening. Do not let water stands in your lawns.