Quick Facts about the Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan

By Majid Anwar 13/10/2023 07:00 PM ilmkidunya.com

Bronze Age Civilization of Pakistan

The Indus Valley Civilization was a bronze-age urban civilization that lasted from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, with its mature phase spanning from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.

World’s Earliest Civilization

Indus valley civilization also known as Harappan civilization, was one of the three earliest civilizations, including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Where is it located in Pakistan?

It extended across the fertile plains of the Indus River and its tributaries, covering parts of present-day Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Its major cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, are in Pakistan's Sindh and Punjab provinces.

Modern City Planning

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were some of the world's first cities with grid-like street layouts, advanced drainage systems, and a system of uniform weights and measures.

Writing System Mastery

The Harappans developed a script that appears on seals and pottery, suggesting a form of written communication. However, this script has yet to be fully deciphered to this day.

Trade and Commerce

The civilization had extensive trade networks, with evidence of trade with Mesopotamia. They traded in a wide range of goods, including pottery, textiles, and metals.


Agriculture was the backbone of their economy. They used to cultivate wheat, barley, and cotton etc. Advanced irrigation systems were used to support agriculture.

Their Religion

The Harappans practiced a religion that included the worship of various idols. Several terracotta figures and symbols have been discovered from the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro sites.

Mysterious Downfall

The reasons for the eventual collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization remain a subject of debate. Theories range from natural disasters to shifts in the river's course and invasions.


The civilization was rediscovered in the 1920s when archaeologists began excavating the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

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