The hammer may be oldest tool we have record of. Stone hammers-some of the oldest human artifacts ever discovered-date back as early as 2,600,000 BCE. Not only is the hammer the oldest tool, but it is also the greatest. What make the hammer so great is its simplicity, power, and usefulness.The structure of the hammer is relatively simple-a fact largely responsible for its early invention and widespread distribution across cultures and geographic regions. The hammer is composed of two main parts: a handle and a head. The handle is used to swing the hammer. The head is used to hit other objects.While the hammer is a very simple tool, it is still able to generate tremendous power. This power results from two factors: the weight of the head, and the speed at which the hammer is swung. Every hammer (though some more than other) has a large distribution of weight at the head. When a hammer is swung, this weight pivots about the hand, which acts as a fulcrum. The handle carries the weight at a distance, acting as a lever arm, so a longer handle means increased speed. The weight of the head together with the speed generated by the lever arm is what gives the hammer so much power.The heavier the head and the faster it is swung, the more power a hammer produces.In addition to the hammer's great power, it also has an exceptionally wide range of useful applications. The purpose of the hammer -- to hit-- is a universal action that can accomplish many tasks. Let's start with the obvious: a hammer can be made to pound nails. But a hammer has many other uses as well. It can break apart hard objects such as brick or concrete. It can bend and shape metal or steel. It can gently tap objects to make small adjustments. It can be used to make sculpture or pottery. It can be used in the hot, harsh business of blacksmithing as well as in delicate operations like crafting jewelry. In times of desperation, it can even be used as a weapon.The hammer truly is a great tool. It is simple, powerful, and useful. A quintessential symbol of labor, the hammer has come to represent hard work and embody the spirit of human industry.
As used in the final paragraph, which of the following describes something quintessential?
Q.6 A great deal of discussion continues as to the real extent of global environmental degradation and its implications What few people challenge however is that the renewable natural resources of developing countries are today subject to stresses of unprecedented magnitude these pressures are brought about in part by increased population and the quest for an ever expanding food supply Because the health nutrition and general well-being of the poor majority are directly dependent on the integrity and productivity of their natural resources the capability of governments to manage them effectively over the long term becomes of paramount importance Developing countries are becoming more aware of the ways in which present and future economic development must build upon a sound and sustainable natural resource base some are looking at our long tradition in environmental protection and are receptive to US assistance which recognizes the uniqueness of the social and ecological systems in these tropical countries Developing countries recognize the need to improve their capability to analyze issues and their own natural resource management in February 1981,for example AID funded a national Academy of Sciences panel to advise Nepal on their severe natural resource degradation problems Some countries such as Senegal India Indonesia and Thailand are now including conservation concerns in their economic development planning process.Because so many government of developing nations have recognized the importance of these issues the need today is not merely one of raising additional consciousness but for carefully designed and sharply focused activities aimed at management regimes that are essential to the achievement of sustained development
d.The poor people of the developing world can lead a happy and contented life if
The public distribution system which provides food at low prices is a subject of vital concern There is a growing realization that though Pakistan has enough food to feed its masses three square meals a day the monster of starvation and food insecurity continues to haunt the poor in our country Increasing the purchasing power of the poor through providing productive employment leading to rising income and thus good standard of living is the ultimate objective of public policy.However till then there is a need to provide assured supply of food through a restructured more efficient and decentralized public distribution system (PDS).Although the PDS is extensive it is one of the largest such systems in the world it has yet to reach the rural poor and the far off places it remains an urban phenomenon with the majority of the rural poor still out of its reach due to lack of economic and physical access the poorest in the cities and the migrants are left out for they generally do not possess ration cards The allocation of PDS supplies in big cities is larger than in rural areas in view of urgently needs to be streamlined.In addition considering the large food grains production combined with food subsidy on one hand and the continuing slow starvation and dismal poverty of the rural population on the other there is a strong case for making PDS target group oriented.The growing salaried class is provided job security regular income and percent insulation against these gains of development have not percolated down to the vast majority of our working population.If one only dearness allowance to the employees in public and private sector and looks at its growth in the past few years the rising food subsidy is insignificant to the point of inequity The food subsidy is a kind of D.A to the poor the self-employed and those in the unorganized sector of the economy.It is true that subsidies should not become a permanent feature except for the destitute disabled widows and the old it is also true dependence and hence is habit-forming killing the general initiative of the people by making PDS target group oriented not only the poorest and neediest would be reached without additional cost but it will actually cut overall costs incurred on large cities and for better off localities when the food and food subsidy are limited the rural and urban poor should have the priority in the PDS supplies The PDS should be closely linked with programs of employment generation and nutrition improvement.
h. Which of the following according to the passage is compared with dearness allowance